¿Que es RPT o Rotura de Puente Térmico?

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marzo 1, 2020

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¿Que es RPT o Rotura de Puente Térmico?

¿Qué es exactamente la “Rotura del Puente Térmico” (RPT)? Muchos son los que a la hora de elegir una ventana de aluminio se lo han preguntado. Pues bien; la RPT consiste en intercalar un material poco conductor entre la cara externa e interna de la carpintería de aluminio. Con esto se dificulta la transmisión y las consiguientes pérdidas de calor, así como las condensaciones. Aunque no es un concepto demasiado complejo, puede que para los más curiosos o escépticos la RPT siga encerrando algunos misterios que desde Intel Aberturas nos gustaría aclarar.

Para ello, debemos tener en cuenta los conceptos físicos y constructivos que intervienen.

Conductividad (λ) y transmitancia térmica (U)

La conductividad térmica es la capacidad que tiene un material para trasferir calor a través de él. La transmitancia térmica es la medida del calor que fluye a través de un sistema constructivo. Es inversa a la “resistencia térmica”, que relaciona la conductividad y el espesor de las capas que componen el sistema.

 

 

Puente térmico

Se produce un puente térmico cuando en un elemento concreto (el marco de una ventana, por ejemplo) tiene un valor U de transmitancia más alto que los colindantes (los muros). Esta situación hace que el calor, que siempre busca la vía de escape más fácil, tienda a fugarse por esos elementos. En otras palabras, los puentes térmicos son autopistas por las que el calor puede escapar a mayor velocidad.

 

Estas imágenes corresponden a una comparativa entre una carpintería de aluminio con rotura y sin rotura de puente térmico. En la primera el calor encuentra una gran dificultad al atravesar la RPT. Se pueden apreciar dos caras, una caliente (interior) y otra fría (exterior). Sin embargo, en la siguiente la distribución de calor se mantiene uniforme, llegando a estar la cara interna de la carpintería a 17ºC.

Condensaciones

Un efecto derivado de los puentes térmicos son las condensaciones. Estas se producen al entrar en contacto el vapor de agua del ambiente con los puentes térmicos, más fríos, provocando su condensación en agua líquida. Este efecto es el responsable de la aparición de humedades y moho.

Dada la alta conductividad de aluminio, se debe disponer en los perfiles de puertas y ventanas una capa intermedia de un material aislante que “rompa” este puente térmico. Pero, ¿cómo?

Perfiles de aluminio con Rotura de Puente Térmico

La RPT en perfiles de aluminio se obtiene por inserción de varillas aislantes de poliamida, reforzadas con un 25 % de fibra de vidrio. Este material tiene una conductividad casi 800 veces menor que la del aluminio(*), por lo que se crea una barrera aislante continua que impide la transmisión de calor. Siguiendo símil anterior, el calor encuentra un peaje muy caro que evita su fuga.

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