Cuatro factores que influyen en la calidad de las ventanas

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intelaberturas
noviembre 4, 2018

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Cuatro factores que influyen en la calidad de las ventanas

Las ventanas son una elección clave para el confort de la casa y su calidad y eficiencia está determinada por un sistema de cuatro variables claves: el marco, el vidrio, los herrajes y los accesorios, así como la instalación.

La elección de las ventanas para la vivienda no debe tomarse a la ligera, porque éstas son un factor clave para lograr un hogar confortable, seguro y sustentable. Sus principales funciones no son solamente las de iluminación y ventilación, sino la de comunicar el interior con el exterior, de proteger del clima y resguardar del sol y los potentes rayos UV. Hay cuatro factores que influyen principalmente en la calidad de una ventana:

El marco

Lo que conocemos como marco en realidad está compuesto de dos perfiles diferenciados, el que se amura a la pared y la hoja de apertura en la que se coloca el vidrio.

En relación con el material, los marcos realizados con perfiles de aluminio tienen el mejor desempeño a lo largo del tiempo, por su durabilidad y resistencia y, porque el mantenimiento es casi nulo, al contrario de otros materiales, como la madera, que requieren cuidados periódicos.

Respecto de la performance térmica, los perfiles de aluminio otorgan un excelente nivel de hermeticidad y aislación termo acústica, nivel que puede ser aún mayor si se cuenta con perfiles con RPT -ruptura de puente térmico- lo que disminuye sustancialmente los costos de refrigerar o calefaccionar los ambientes. Por otro lado, los marcos de aluminio ofrecen la mayor variedad de terminaciones, texturas y colores, siendo aliados ideales para el diseño arquitectónico.

Para grandes ventanales, el aluminio es un material ideal por su resistencia estructural, propia de su condición metálica, no necesitando suplementos en el marco, como es el caso del PVC. Por otra parte, un aspecto que no siempre se toma en cuenta es la luminosidad que otorgan los esbeltos marcos de aluminio, permitiendo el mayor paso de luz a través del vidrio, que representa entre el 70 al 80 % de la superficie total de una abertura.

El vidrio

Los vidrios constituyen el material de visión de la ventana y su función básica es lograr la aislación térmica y acústica, además de proveer de iluminación a los ambientes. Entre los diferentes tipos de cristales, podemos mencionar los transparentes o translúcidos -proveen visuales o intimidad-, templados o laminados -otorgan seguridad y protección a las roturas-, reflectivos -reducen el ingreso no deseado de calor solar radiante y excesiva luminosidad- y los vidrios aislantes -con doble vidriado hermético (DVH)- que aportan mayor hermeticidad y aislación. El valor mayor de un doble vidriado hermético se amortizará en pocos años, a través de los ahorros en las boletas de luz y gas. Además, el doble vidriado hermético evita el riesgo de condensación de agua en los ambientes interiores.

Los sistemas de herrajes y accesorios

Los sistemas de herrajes y accesorios son los responsables finales del funcionamiento de la abertura, su deslizamiento, giro, apertura, cierre, etc. Este sistema de apertura y cierre es lo que otorga a la ventana la cualidad de la hermeticidad y permite aislar térmicamente de las ganancias y pérdidas de temperatura, así como de las filtraciones de aire y agua. Se debe tener en cuenta que la elección de los accesorios debe hacerse en función de las exigencias específicas para cada ventana, por ejemplo: el tamaño de la ventana, la presión del viento, la maniobrabilidad, la seguridad, etc.

Los principales accesorios son los herrajes, bisagras, ruedas, cierres y burletes. Los burletes brindan hermeticidad, fijación de vidrios y terminación. El accionamiento de una abertura es aportado fundamentalmente por el herraje y por ello es un aspecto crítico en la calidad de la misma.

El asesoramiento e instalación

El asesoramiento profesional es clave para conocer las características de las ventanas ideales para cada ambiente y las circunstancias específicas de tu vivienda, como lo son la ubicación, accionamiento, orientación y asoleamiento. Las ventanas pueden ser de gran calidad, pero si están mal instaladas pierden sus ventajas, por ello es importante contratar profesionales con experiencia.

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